Tamim Ahmed
Tamim Ahmed
25 Jan 2023 (7 days ago)
Araihazar, Narayanganj, Dhaka, Bangladesh
chemistry basic tutorial for beginners 2023

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Chemistry is the branch of wisdom under which the composition, structure, parcels and changes of substances during chemical responses are studied. Its nonfictional configuration is rasa ayana which literally means the study of rasas( fluids). It’s a physical wisdom in which the tittles, motes, chargers( swells) of substances and the energy released or used during chemical processes are studied.

In short, chemistry is the scientific study of chemical substances. Matter is composed of infinitesimal or subatomic patches similar as electrons, protons, and neutrons. Chemistry is also called the central wisdom or introductory wisdom because it links other lores similar as astronomy, drugs, material wisdom, biology and geology.

Etymology of ‘Chemistry’ – Linguistic view

  • In the view of linguistics , the origin of Chemistry’s root metal Chemi is derived from the Greek language chemea which means – ‘Greek technique of metal making’.
  • According to other beliefs, the meaning of Kemi is to mix with each other.
  • Chemistry’s root metal Chemy is similar to the Chinese word Kim, which means the art of transformation of metals. One of its forms is Chin.
  • The word Chemy in Arabic and Greek is actually a variation of the Chinese language Kim. The word Chimmi means ‘gold smelter’ in Chinese (Mandarin language).
  • Under chemistry, the conversion, formation and properties of elements and compounds are broadly studied.
  • According to another belief, Chemistry is believed to come from the Spanish language alchemy, which is derived from the Arabic al-kimia, which literally means transformation.
  • Although there are different views of the origin of the word Kemi, but even after this it is certain that the root of this word is the same. Words similar to this are found in the languages ​​of East Central Asia and Europe, so this fact is confirmed.

Main article: Chemistry

The history of chemistry in India is very ancient. Indians had knowledge of chemistry and chemical technology since the pre-Harappan period (4000 BC). There are many references to the superiority of Indian steel in history. The Iron Pillar of Delhi and the copper statue of Buddha located in Bhagalpur district of Bihar are irrefutable examples of this.

In Ayurveda too, the word ‘Rasayana’ has been used extensively. In Ayurveda, mercury was called ‘Rasraj’ i.e. king of juices and medicines made from mercury were called ‘Rasayan’. ‘ Rasyashastra ‘ is made from chemistry .

  • Chemistry is the art of understanding the secrets of chemicals. It is known from this science that what substances are made of, what are their properties and what are the changes in them.
  • All matter is made of elements. Indian learned philosophers declared that matter was created from the five great elements, namely, sky, air, water, fire and earth. On the other hand, according to the Greek thinkers, substances were created from four types of elements, namely – earth, air, water and fire.

Chemistry in Europe

  • Chemistry in Europe started with Theophilus in the 12th century.
  • Paracelsus (1493-1541 AD) worked in the field of medicinal chemistry in the 15th-16th century.
  • Francis Bacon (1561-1636 AD) laid the foundation of modern chemistry in the 16th-17th century.

Fields of chemistry

Chemistry also has many branches that are divided into the study of matter. In the branches of chemistry [organic chemistry], inorganic chemistry , biochemistry, physical chemistry , analytical chemistry etc. are prominent.

Organic substances in organic chemistry, inorganic substances in inorganic chemistry, substances present in micro-organisms in biochemistry , structure of matter in physical chemistry, composition and energy embedded in it, analysis of samples in analytical chemistry is studied so that its structure and composition

Let's find out In recent times some other branches of chemistry like neuro-chemistry have emerged. 

The field of chemistry is very wide and is expanding day by day in coordination with other sciences. As a result, today we see the study of chemistry in many new appendages like physical and chemical physics, biochemistry, physiology-chemistry, general chemistry, agricultural chemistry, etc.

For the convenience of study, we classify chemistry into several branches-

1. Inorganic Chemistry

2. Organic Chemistry

3. Physical Chemistry

4. Analytical Chemistry

5. Biochemistry

6. Industrial Chemicals

7. Medicinal Chemicals

8. Nuclear Chemistry

9. Agricultural Chemicals

10. Environmental Chemistry

11. Green Chemistry

12. Theoretical Chemistry

Apart from these , there are other branches like geochemistry, astrochemistry, polymer chemistry, cluster chemistry, electrochemistry, environmental chemistry, food chemistry, general chemistry, nanochemistry, solid state chemistry, thermochemistry etc.

Chemistry and our lives

Chemistry has an intact contribution in improving human life. The development of chemistry is essential to secure the future of mankind. This will be possible only when the general public is attracted towards this science. The need of the hour is to use this science judiciously.

  • The entire universe is a poisonous storehouse of chemicals. Wherever our vision goes, we see objects of various shapes and sizes. The whole world is the laboratory of chemistry. This science is full of many surprising chemicals. The origin of stars, emergence of planets and life on planets have become possible only through chemical reactions in the universe.
  • Chemistry has also been given the noun of life-useful science, because this science has an important role in the internal activities of our body.
  • Sun is the only source of all energy on earth, which has been giving light and heat for the past about 5 billion years , trees and plants are growing, animals are moving, clouds are moving, somewhere there is lightning and thunder. Somewhere storms are making their presence felt, somewhere earthquakes and somewhere tsunami incidents are happening.
  • In all these incidents, chemicals are showing their tricks.
  • All these are made of some or the other substance, which are in solid, liquid or gaseous form, but these are also chemicals.
  • No aspect of our life is untouched by chemicals.
  • Scientists have also termed our life as ‘chemical action’.
  • All the signs of life are echoes of chemical processes.
  • The processes of nutrition, growth, digestion, excretion, reproduction in living beings are chemical reactions only.
  • Chemical reactions are responsible behind all the sensory experiences of human beings such as sound, touch, form, taste and smell.
  • In fact, chemistry is related to our daily life.
  • We start with morning tea which is an aqueous solution boiled with milk, sugar, tea-leaves.
  • Chemicals have a role to play in meeting basic needs like food, clothing and shelter.
  • Wherever we look, we see scenes of chemicals.
  • Things of daily use, such as soap, oil, brush, scrub, comb, mirror, paper, pen, ink, medicines, plastic etc. are the gift of chemistry.
  • Chemicals are prevalent in religion-work, worship-recitation, bath, incense-lamp, naivedya, incense sticks, roli, protection and camphor etc.
  • In festivals and Teej festivals, chemicals are prevalent even behind the lamps, candles and firecrackers.
  • Traffic, telecommunication, transport and various sources of energy like coal, petrol, diesel, kerosene, naphtha and cooking gas are also examples of various chemical compounds.
  • Chemistry has played an unequaled role in making human life comfortable.
  • Tools, equipment and devices used in our daily life like – chair, table, T.V. Refrigerator, Clock, Cooker, Iron, Mixer, AC, Stove, Utensils, Paints, Clothes, Pigments and Dyes, Detergents, Insecticides, Various Cosmetics Detergents ), insecticides, various cosmetics, etc. all have the contribution of chemistry.
  • In fact, chemicals are related to every gas, liquid or solid substance. The environment in which we live and breathe is made up of various chemicals. Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon etc. gases are present in the atmosphere.

Chemistry in medicine

The progress of medical science is the result of chemistry. At present, 75 percent of the drugs are synthesized from chemical substances. Today there are about 4000 known medicines but the number of diseases is about 30,000. Therefore, chemistry has priority for disease prevention in future.

Classification of drugs

  • 1. Headache and other analgesics
  • 2. Medicines for burns
  • 3. Anti-cold cough
  • 4. Antiseptic
  • 5. Laxatives
  • 6. Anesthetizing, anesthetic drugs
  • 7. Stimulants

Headache  : Aspirin (C9H8O4) – acetic ester of alicylic acid

Medicines for burns – Skin irritation Tannic acid and burnol on the burnt area

Cold and cough – 75 percent of the country’s people sufferKulliya – Thymal, MenthalMuffin – AcetanilideNasal Spray – Menthol, Camphor, Propylene Glycol Spray

Antiseptic – Dettol, Mercurochrome , Boric acid

Laxatives – Epsom salts, Phenylephrine, Strychnine

Torture – Anesthetics – Ether, Ethylene, Nitrous Oxide

hypnotic or hypnotic – phenobarbital

Antibiotic – Dr. Alexander Fleming obtained penicillin in 1928 from Penicillium fungi . Streptomycin, Tetramycin, Biomycin, Erythromycin – Synthesis of antibiotic series

Chemicals in household and food

  • Stainless Steel Utensils – iron containing 14% nichrome (an alloy of chromium and nickel )
  • Brass Utensils – Utensils made from an alloy of copper and zinc
  • Bronze utensils – a precious alloy consisting of 88% copper, 10% tin and 2% zinc; Gold, Silver and Bronze medals in sports
  • Aluminum utensils – bauxite (Al2O3)
  • Silver utensils – soft metal, copper or nickel is added to it.
  • Plastic plates, cups, etc. – These are made of Bakelite, which is made from phenol and formaldehyde.
  • Rubber – The new substance made by mixing the hydrocarbon of petroleum and the compound of butadiene styrene with other chemical substances is called ‘artificial rubber’.

Heavy Vehicle Tires – Chloroprene RubberAircraft Tires – Conductive Polymers

  • Chemicals in foods – 6 main chemical components of food – Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins, Minerals, Water
  • Use of different types of chemicals in homes
  • Stomach complaints – vinegar – acetic acid salt and water.
  • baking soda – sodium bicarbonate
  • Washing soda – sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)
  • Table salt – NaCl
  • Rock salt – KCl
  • Alum – K2SO4 , Al2(SO4 )3 , 24H2O
  • In batteries – 38 percent aqueos solution of H2SO4
  • slaked lime – Ca(OH) 2
  • ethanol in alcoholic beverages
  • Fragrance of flowers – flavones and flavonoids.
  • Raspberry scent – Ionine
  • Banana smell – isoamyl acetate
  • Freshness of Lemon – Limonene Compound Sourness – Citric Acid
  • Atanacid medicines in case of acidity – Mg(OH) 2 . Due to this, the stomach makes MgCl 2 and water, due to which there is a decrease in acidity.
  • In marble and chalky soil – CaCO 3 compound.
  • Main ingredient of toothpaste Al 2 O 3
  • Iodine compounds in mouthwash – disinfectants
  • Through chemistry, adulteration in food items such as milk, desi ghee, mustard oil, green vegetables, pulses, flour, tea and spices can also be checked at home by simple methods.
  • Titanium oxide and polyurethane are used in paint and varnish . The base of the paint used in houses is acrylic latex.

Chemistry in the manufacture of glass

  • Glass is the world’s first synthetic thermoplastic. It can be molded in any shape. Glass is made by melting sand (SiO2), limestone (CaO), sodium oxide (Na2O) and other minerals and metals together and its various utensils etc. are made. Nowadays glass is used in many ways.
  • Different types of chemical salts are added to make colored glass.

pale blue or green – Fe2O3Yellow – Fe(OH)3 pale yellow – leadPink or pale pink – Seleniumblue – coppergreen – high amount of copperred – copper oxide

Glass with plastic

  • Glass fibers when combined with plastic form a very strong material called reinforced plastic , which is used to make roofs, boats, sporting goods, suitcases and automobile bodies.
  • Glass wool – bundles of loose glass fibers, good insulation, it is used in – fridge, oven, cooker and hot water bottles.

Soaps and detergents

  • The use of soap for cleaning dates back to around 2800 BC. In the second century, the Greek physician Galen mentioned the manufacture of soap from an alkaline solution.
  • Soap is the sodium salt of fatty acid. The sodium or potassium salts of stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid.
  • Sodium soaps are solid and hard while potassium soaps are soft and liquid. Formula of soap  : C 17H35 COONa
  • Shampoo also alcohol mixed soap. In this oil is treated with sulfuric acid to make it water soluble.
  • Sterilizer to remove baldness – Resorcinal
  • The nature of water does not affect the detergent. Hence more popular.

stationery

  • Paper is obtained from wood only by chemical process . Chemical treatment is done with hundreds of liters of water in the production of paper. Pencil, cutter, sharpener, rubber, eraser, whitener, ink etc. are all chemicals.

photography

  • Photography process based on chemistry. negative to positive image paper coated with sodium thiosulfate

Disinfectants

  • Dettol – Popular Disinfectant – Home Use (Chloroxylenol)
  • Phenyl – more prevalent
  • Bactericidal chemical (alcohol) 60-90 percent and boric acid in wounds and surgery – available everywhere
  • cleaning with 2O2 prior to wound dressing; Use of tincture of iodine
  • Phenol or carbolic acid – bactericidal – preoperative cleaning of hands by the surgeon
  • Use of bleaching powder (CaOCl2) Used in cleaning water sources and drains, sewers.

Hidden chemicals in cosmetics

  • Cream or cold cream – A facial cream made from a mixture of olive oil, beeswax, water and borax. Perfumes , alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, phenols for fragrance .
  • Powder – Limestone, Talcum, Zinc Oxide, Clay Powder, Starch, Coloring Matter, Fragrance
  • Lipstick – coloring matter made from wax and coal tar. Some oil is added to the mixture for lubrication.
  • Shaving cream – stearic acid, oil, grease and potassium hydroxide
  • Nailpolish – a type of quick-drying lacquer containing titanium oxide (TiO2 ) added to impart colour. Nowadays nitrocellulose, acetone, amyl acetate etc. Ethyl acetate, acetone and olive oil for discoloration.

Agricultural chemicals

  • Chemical Pesticides, Fungicides, Developed
  • Soilless Agriculture – Hydrophonics
  • Use of sulfuric acid and gypsum in barren land improvement
  • Chemical Fertilizers – Urea, Muriate of Potash, Sulphate of Potash, D.A.P., C.A.N. Etcetera.

Chemicals used in industries

  • Industry is not possible without the role of chemistry . Plastic, textile, fertilizer, glass, metal, paper, leather, coal, metal, paper, leather, coal, gas, petrochemicals, chemicals obtained from sulfur and chlorine, chemicals obtained from lime etc.
  • Explosive substances: (used in digging mines, demolishing buildings, digging oil and gas wells) Many nitrates such as cellulose nitrate and nitroglycerin, potassium nitrate etc. are explosives.

nuclear chemistry

  • Radioactivity and nuclear processes are studied under this branch of chemistry .

Green chemistry

  • This is the latest branch which is also called ‘Green and sustainable Chemistry’. Green chemistry refers to the design of chemical products or chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the production or use of harmful waste.
  • Use of liquid carbon dioxide instead of perchlorethylene (carcinogen) in dry cleaning.
  • Medicine named Ibuprofin – Pain and antipyretic can be manufactured in 10 to 6 steps, 30 percent reduction in pollution.
  • Developed a safer alternative to chlorine for bleaching cellulose in paper mills.
  • Developed a very simple and effective water filter by applying a nano layer of graphite oxide on sand particles.
  • Use of green enzymes in industries.
  • Available at low cost through biocatalysts, agrochemicals, plastic fibers etc.
  • Use of green enzymes in industries.
  • The combination of organic chemistry, bio-organic chemistry and bio-chemistry has given unexpected benefits in the field of medicine – green chemistry itself.
  • Polylactic acid used in biocompatible fibres, biodegradable sutures and packaging.
  • IIT in India Green catalytic method developed in Guwahati, Kanpur and Delhi. Effective in pharmaceutical industry.
  • Corn syrup use in food industry

Chemicals hidden in various mysteries

  • The charisma of chemicals in fireworks – Technique of manufacture and use of fireworks – Pyrotechnics or Agni Krida. The chemicals used are dextrin, charcoal, red gum, aluminium, potassium perchlorate and ammonium perchlorate.
  • As the armor is ignited in fireworks, the fuel and oxidizer react at temperatures ranging from 2200 to 36000, producing a sound.
  • Green color from SrCO3 , nitrates and chlorates used in fireworks for coloring fireworks . Fireworks-inflammable by soaking paper touch paper in KnO3 .

Chemicals in henna color

  • Lawsone, which is a chemical of the naphthaquinone class, gives red color by acting on the protein lath present in the skin of the hands with the lath of the proteins present in the skin of the hands.
  • Reason for change in color of chameleon : The special pigment cells of chameleon – melanophore – shrink along with rise and fall of temperature. These cells change color when stimulated by hormones secreted in their body – intermedin, acetylcholine etc.
  • Discoloration of flowers – When the petals of green, yellow, blue and red flowers are brought in contact with sulfur dioxide and chlorine, these gases discolor the flowers.
  • Wrinkles of old age are also due to chemicals – Wrinkles due to reduction in collagen and elastin protein fibers present in the upper surface of the skin.
  • Wrist Watch Cell – Lithium – The wrist watch cell is called ‘Button Cell’ because of its button shape. In this lithium acts as the negative electrode, positive as an oxidizing agent.
  • Laughing and crying gases – nitrous oxide gas and nitrile bromide; Ethyl iodoacetate used by the police as tear gas .
  • Chemicals in the composition of tears – Protein, nitrogen, urea, glucose, sodium, oxides of potassium, ammonia, chlorine, sodium chloride, lysozyme enzymes etc. are present in the liquid of our tears.
  • Humpback in water and bad teeth – Water also shows charisma in a person being hunchbacked. Consumption of fluoridated water for a long time gives deformity in the bones and teeth, causing hunchback and deformities in the teeth.
  • The metal that ignites water – sodium has a close friendship with water.

2Na + 2H2 -> 2NaOH + H2

  • The secret of the firefly ‘s glow: Luciferin C13H12N2S2O3 present in the trunk of the light producing firefly + Mg = light.
  • Sweetest substance in the world: Talim Protein which is five thousand times sweeter than sugar.
  • Sunglasses full of chemicals: particles of silver iodide and silver bromide in photochromatic glasses Separated in the sun and re-coupled in the shade.
  • Cooking gas liquid: LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas) mainly propane and butane gas mixed with odorous thioalcohol. For use in homes, this gas is filled at high pressure.
  • Fragrances of flowers – derivatives of turpentine and benzene
  • Cut apple discolored  : The white part becomes almond after cutting – Caffeitannin, a tannin called epicatechin – Oxidized by contact with air.
  • The contribution of capsaicin to the burning sensation from eating chilies.
  • Role of ethylene gas in ripening of fruits – Green colored fruits turn red-yellow.
  • Ozone hole – A thin layer of ozone surrounds the earth at an altitude of 15-50 km above the earth. It protects the earth from the high energy ultraviolet rays of the sun and protects our lives. For the first time in 1987, this layer was seen falling in Antarctica . The role of chlorofluorocarbons in its hole formation .
  • Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) in the lining of non-stick cookware
  • The color of betel leaf is due to catechunic acid.
  • Hydroponics – agriculture without soil.
  • Chemistry in the secret of inks: Ball point pen ink – Mixing colored pigments with oleic acid, castor oil and sulfonamides.
  • Chemicals that show the way to ants : Queen, winged male and wingless female – three species of ants continuously release odorous pheromones to find the way.
  • Stamp pad ink – made by dissolving a dye called induline in glycerin, phenol or cresol.
  • Printing ink – use of silver salt and aniline compound in mineral oil, anilon color and ink used in election.
  • Contribution of Centchroman (Synthesis from Resorcinol) to the Non-Steroidal, Non-Hormonal Contraceptive Pill – Women’s Friend.
  • Osmium is the heaviest metal and gallium is more expensive than platinum .

stain remover

  • Vegetable stains – (grass, tea, vegetables, coffee, fruits) hot water, soap and honey.
  • Biological stains – ammonia, salt, lemon, carbon tetrachloride for stains of blood, sputum, phlegm, eggs, mucus.
  • Chemical stains – Use of oxalic acid and H 2O2 for iron, ink, varnish, paint , Vaseline, sodium perborate and chloroform for oil stains .
  • Use specific chemicals for all protein stains – egg, blood, etc.

Deadly chemicals

  • Use of PbS instead of Sb2S3 in antimony in eyes – fatal for eyes. Lead is a highly toxic metal to the body.
  • Excessive use of formaldehyde in cosmetics. It is fatal due to use in shampoos, preservatives etc.
  • Aluminum utensils harmful (lightweight, cheap, rust-free and abundantly available). Sour things, salt and soda, curd, tea, chutney, vinegar, fruit juice, tomato juice etc. should never be kept in aluminum utensils.
  • Damage to brain cells from frequent consumption of high aluminum-rich food or tea.

Summary  :

  • Energy – cells , batteries , nuclear reactors , petroleum etc.
  • medicines
  • Fertilizer
  • insecticide
  • Metals , plastics and other construction materials
  • clothes
  • cement
  • soap , oil , cosmetics
  • High quality silicon wafer for IC manufacturing
  • helper to catch criminals
  • ammunition , explosives and other war materials
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