6 Jul 2022 (7 months ago)
What are the symptoms of varicose veins, treatment
When the veins just below the skin become thick and swollen and progress in a spiral pattern, they are called varicose veins. Varicose veins are mainly in the legs but can also occur in other parts of the body.
If this is the case, sometimes the body is very itchy. It’s awkward to look at. Sometimes surgery is required.
Dr. National Heart Institute and Hospital Associate Professor gave details on this matter. Abul Hasan Muhammad Bashar.
The largest vein of the leg located under the skin – Long saphenous vein (Long saphenous vein) and its branches are more affected by this disease. Branches of these tortuous veins begin on the surface of the foot and on the inside of the ankle and foot and up the inner thigh. Another relatively small vein of the leg called ‘Short Saphenous Vein’ (Short Saphenous Vein) and its branches can also be affected by this disease. Their spread is mainly on the back or outside of the knees and feet.
Varicose Vein Symptoms
Varicose veins are a common disease. For good reason, people with this disease, especially women, feel embarrassed about their affected feet. In the initial stage pain in the legs is felt, the legs feel heavy and it is tiring to walk. Later, the affected part of the leg becomes swollen, bleeding from the swollen veins with minor injuries, feeling dry, itchy and darkening of the skin of the affected part. At one stage the affected area develops sores, which do not dry easily or recur even after drying.
Possible complications of varicose veins
ভ্যারিকোস ভেইন থেকে মারাত্মক জটিলতা সৃষ্টি হওয়ার আশংকা অপেক্ষাকৃত কম। ক্ষেত্রবিশেষে নিচের জটিলতা সৃষ্টি হতে পারে-
The risk of serious complications from varicose veins is relatively low. In particular, the following complications may arise-
* There may be recurrent bleeding from the affected veins.
* If not treated in time, varicose veins can cause permanent skin damage from the itchiness and blood iron that accumulates under the skin.
* Blood clots inside the affected veins can sometimes cause sudden sharp pain.
* Clots in the veins can rush to the lungs and block the patient’s life, although the risk is very low.
* Ulcers caused by varicose veins can sometimes turn into cancer
What causes varicose veins?
If we think about the leg veins, then it can be seen that normally the blood flows through these veins from the bottom to the top i.e. against the force of gravity. A vein has a series of ‘valves’ or ‘valves’ spaced apart. Since blood is fluid, its natural tendency is to flow downwards. Leg muscle contraction or muscle pump (Muscle Pump) and vein valves resist this possible downward flow of liquid blood flowing through the veins and ensure its upward flow. Varicose veins cause dysfunction of an important valve (the cepheno-femoral junction near the ankle or the cepheno-popliteal junction behind the knee), As a result, the normal upward flow of blood is disturbed and the blood starts to go down. As a result, the blood pressure inside the veins increases. If this condition continues for a long time, the veins become swollen and cause varicose veins. It is not known exactly why this valve or valve in the vein becomes dysfunctional, but the following factors are believed to play a role.
* Congenital weakness in vein wall structure.
* Overweight and older age.
* Having children.
* Standing for long periods of time.
While not all of these are the cause of varicose veins, they can exacerbate the problem.
In the early stages, it is possible to treat varicose veins without surgery or at least control their symptoms. What to do at this stage is-
* Keeping the feet high
* Do not stand or sit continuously for a long time
* Using special socks and certain medicines.
At some point, surgery becomes necessary to treat varicose veins. Basically there are two types of system-
Traditional operation: In this operation, the affected swollen veins are removed by cutting and the cause of the disease is also eliminated. If the spread of the disease is too high, they are closed by injecting a type of chemical substance into the swollen vein instead of cutting it all over. This treatment method is known as Sclerotherapy. Later, these veins gradually become silent.
Laser (Endovenous Laser Ablation) and Radio-Frequency Ablation (Radio-Frequency Ablation): This is the modern method of varicose vein treatment. In this method, measures are taken using laser or radio frequency to eliminate the cause of the disease without cutting. Sclerotherapy is used if necessary to eliminate the swollen veins. Laser and radiofrequency ablation treatments have become popular in the developed world because they do not require cutting. Application of these methods has also started in Bangladesh.
Since swollen veins are also a pathway for blood circulation, the question may arise as to whether removing or occluding them may lead to difficulty in blood circulation. The answer is ‘no’. Because first of all, the veins that become crooked due to swelling cannot play any effective role in blood circulation. Second, the human body has deeper veins or deep veins. Their role in blood transport is important. So there is no problem in removing the swollen veins under the skin. Before the operation, it is important to see whether these veins, which are arranged deep in the flesh, are working properly through a special test (vascular doppler or duplex). Otherwise, varicose vein surgery is not recommended. Varicose vein surgery and its preoperative evaluation should be performed by an experienced vascular surgeon.
All the methods mentioned above are effective in treating varicose veins. The major advantage of laser and radiofrequency ablation is that it takes less time for the patient to recover than surgery because no incisions are required. At the moment laser is quite expensive in our country and its long term results are not fully known yet. In many cases, after laser treatment, varicose veins can reappear in or around the affected area. Compared to that, the long-term results of traditional surgical treatment are well known. If done correctly, almost permanent recovery is possible after this operation in most cases. By the time varicose vein patients come for treatment in our country, the disease is already far advanced. In these cases some cuts become almost essential.