10 Dec 2021 (1 year ago)
People can do all the work in the world if they want. But not everything can be done together. Every person succeeds if he can develop a skill towards his goal. But the aim should be in a specific direction. Don’t choose what is the best career. See what your heart desires. Or you will fail. Because you have likes and dislikes. Among all the school books, you will like a certain book. Remember that is your goal.
Maybe you can target a person and reach his place but not his respect. So do something yourself. Because creative people are memorable. Acting also brings out creativity.
Concept and Definition of Drama:
Drama is a special branch of literature. The word drama itself has an indication of what drama is. Natak, Natya, Not The root word of these words is ‘not’. Knot means to move, to move. The English equivalent of drama is Drama. The word drama comes from the Greek word dracin. Which means to do or do something. Even in drama, we mainly see the representation of some aspect or incident of life through the movements, speech etc. of the actors and actresses. While introducing drama in online free dictionary it is said-
A prose or verse composition, especially one telling a serious story, that is intended for representation by actors impersonating the characters and performing the dialogue and action
The ancient form of literature was called Kavya. There were two types of poetry – audio poetry and visual poetry. At that time literature was mainly learned by reading. And the poems that were performed were screen poems. For this reason, drama in Sanskrit is called Sukhanakavya. But it is not enough to say that the play is only about watching, it is also about listening. Drama is presented to the audience by seeing and hearing dialogues through acting. It is a mixed media. In Sanskrit it is called the best of poetry – ‘Natakang Ramayam in poetry. Drama can be recited; May act on stage, TV-radio or other media. It is very powerful and popular medium nowadays.
Drama style and structure.
While other branches of literature are mainly for reading, drama is mainly for acting. So it has some special structural features. There are generally four elements in a play, although there are variations from case to case. They are- 1. Story 2. Character 3. Dialogue 4. the environment A story is developed through the dialogues or interactions of the actors or characters of the play. The story may revolve around some part of human life.
Every play has one or more characters. The story or events of the play are mainly developed depending on the character of the play. The story of the play is revealed through the mutual conflicts of the characters. Again the characters are spoken through the dialogue. It can be said that dialogue is the life of drama. Dialogue brings the story and characters to a conclusion.
Dramatic situations are created through dialogue. In a novel or story, the author can create and explain various environmental situations through narration. That opportunity does not exist in drama. The main resort in this case is dialogue. So the success of the drama largely depends on the dialogue.
The dramatist has to create a suitable environment for the plot, character or dialogue of the play. That is, in which environment or situation is this happening or in which environment is the character behaving or saying the dialogue, it has to be made believable. This atmosphere is artificially created in stage play through stage decoration, lighting, sound system etc. This work is mainly done by the theater director. The dramatist directs it in his plays. However, the characteristic of a good play is to create atmosphere in the play through dialogue or acting. Combining these elements of drama does not create a successful drama; There are various types of protection in drama.
The Greek philosopher Aristotle spoke of three types of unity in drama. The units are-
1. unity of time
2. Unity of place
3, Unity of events
By unity of time, we mean that as long as the play is performed on the stage, only what can happen in the time is done in the play. If more than this happens, the artistic quality of the drama will be undermined. The drama will lose credibility. In this regard, a group of theater critics think that from one sunrise to another sunrise, that is, as much story as possible on the stage within twenty-four hours, should be in the drama.
The unity of place is the extent to which the characters of the play can change places within a certain period of time. If it is more or less than that, the drama quality will be disturbed. Drama has a beginning, development and conclusion. That is, the story of the drama is connected with the beginning-middle-end
The unity of the event is the equality or harmony between its beginnings and consequences. Assembling events that are not in accordance with the main events will disrupt the coherence of the story of the play. Therefore, the assembly of unnecessary events cannot be done in the drama. Everything that happens must be related to one another.
As a story progresses in drama, it is divided into five episodes. The episodes are –
1. The beginning of the story or face (Exposition)
2. Rising Auction
3. The excellence of the story or the final conflict or womb (Climax)
4. Gland expansion or Vimarsh (Failing Action)
That is, after the beginning of a play, its story will develop, in view of various events, the story will create a final conflict moment. Then the final conflict of the play will be brought to a conclusion by the revelation of some truth or information and finally an ending will occur.
Note that these properties are generally applicable to drama. It may not be applicable to all dramas. For example, many recent experimental or absurd plays may not have these elements described in the play. “Waiting for God” by Samuel Beckett cannot be divided into five parts like this. In the case of Badal Sarkar’s third theater or recent experimental theatre, this condition of drama is not applicable in many cases. Here the features of traditional or ideal drama are discussed.
A brief introduction to Bengali drama
There is a mention of drama being performed in Charyapa, the earliest sign of Bengali literature. Some recent studies have also shown that Charyapad was performed in Buddhist temples along with dancing and acting. From this it can be said that the history of Bengali drama is thousands of years old. Our Yatrapala tradition is also very old. However, in the sense of drama, the proscenium theater that we are familiar with today came to the Bengal region from Europe. However, the organizer of the first stage play in Calcutta was a Russian citizen. His name is Herasim Spepanvy Lebedev. On November 27, 1795, he converted the English play ‘The Disguise’ into Bengali and staged it under the name ‘Kalpnik Sambandal’. Gelkanath Das helped him translate the play. Similarly, he also staged ‘Love is the Best Doctor’. When Lebedev left the area, the play was interrupted. Several years later, in 1852, he acted.
Taracharan Shikdar’s ‘Kirtibilas of Bhadrarjuna and Yogeshchandra Gupta’ (1852). In the next two years Harachandra Ghesh’s Bhanumati Chittabilas (1853) and Ram Narayana Tarkaratna’s Kulinakul-Sarvasva’ (1854) were staged.
Michael Madhusudan Dutt (1824-1873) is credited with writing the first Bengali modern drama. He wrote the play ‘Shamishta’ in 1859 following the western drama style. Then one by one he composed plays and farces such as ‘Padmavati’ (1860), Krishnakumari’ (1861), ‘Ekei Ki Bole Savyata’ (1860), ‘Burae Shaliker Gharke Ron’ (1860). Another contemporary dramatist of his was Dinbandhu Mitra (1830-1873). Some of his famous plays include – Neel Darpan” (1860), “Naveen Tapaswini” (1863), Leelavati” (1867), “Sadhabar Ekadashi” (1866) Biye Pagla Burae” (1866) etc.
Mir Musharraf Hassan (1847-1912) is one of the most important dramatists of Bengali literature. His famous dramas and farces include- “Jamidar Darpan’ (1873), Vasant Kumari’ (1873), ‘Er Awaya Ki? (1876) etc. Among other dramatists and farces of this period, Sirajuddaula (1906) by Girishchandra Ghesh (1844-1912), Sajahan (1909) by Dwijendralal Ray (1863-1913), Pratapaditya (1903) by Kshiredprasad Vidyabino (1864-1927) etc.
Like other branches of literature, the contribution of Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) is very important in Bengali drama. He enriched the Bengali theater literature by composing various genres of drama. Famous plays written by him include ‘Dakghar’ (1912), ‘Raktakarvi’ (1916), ‘Chitrangada’ (1936), ‘Chirkumar Sabha’ (1926), ‘Valmiki Pratibha’ (1881) etc.
Notable post-Rabindra plays include Sachindranath Sengupta’s Sirajuddaula (1938), Bijan. Bhattacharya’s Navanna (1944), Tulsi Lahiri’s ‘Hendra Tar’ (1951), Utpal Dutt’s ‘Kallol’ (1968), Badal
Sarkar and Indrajit (1965) etc.
Reasons why Bangladesh dramas became popular
Before 1947 Kolkata was the heart of Bengali theater. After the partition of India, Dhaka-centric theater practice developed in the then East Bengal. The drama of East Bengal naturally depicts the social reality of the region, especially the image of the Bengali Muslim society. Notable among the dramatists of this genre are Nurul Memon (1906-1989) and Askar Ibn Shaikh. Dramas written by Nurul Memon include – Naya Khandan’, ‘Nemesis’, ‘Emon Je Hato’, ‘Rupantar’ etc. Askar Ibn Shaikh’s plays include – ‘Titumir, Agnigiri’, ‘Blood Lotus’, ‘Rebellious Padma’, ‘Apar Opar’ etc.
Munir Chowdhury (1925-1971) and Syed Waliullah (1922-1971) are leading dramatists in Bangladesh’s modern theater practice. The dramas written by Munir Chowdhury include- ‘Bloody Desert’ (1962), ‘Kabar’ (1966), ‘Chithi’ (1966) etc. Syed Waliullah’s plays are discussed later.
Other Bangladeshi plays include—Sirajuddaula (1965), ‘Mahakbi Alaol’ (1966) by Sikandar Abu Zafar (1918-1975); ‘Amla’s Case’, ‘Kakar Moni’ by Shaukat Osman (1919-1998); “Jew’s Daughter”, “Magical Hour” by Alauddin Al Azad (1932-2009); ‘Map’, ‘Album’ by Anis Chowdhury (1929-1990); ‘Kalbela’, ‘Milepast’, ‘Trishanay’, ‘The Last Nawab’ by Saeed Ahmad (1931-2010); ‘Spartacus Complications’, ‘Harin Cheetah Chill’, ‘Raja Anusvarar Paala’, ‘Ai Sei Kanthaswar’, ‘Freedom is my Freedom’ by Mumtaz Uddin Ahmad (1935-); Abdallah Al Mamun (1943- 2008) Subchan in Exile’, ‘Now Troubled’, ‘War on All Sides’, ‘Commander’, ‘Undefended Motijheel’; ‘Jaundice and Miscellaneous Balloons’, ‘Serpent Tales’, ‘Kittankhaela’, ‘Orient’, ‘Submersion’ by Salim Al Din (1948-2008); ‘The Sound of Footsteps’ by Syed Shamsul Haque (1935) ‘The Life of Nurladin’,
Introduction to Bahipi’s plays and playwrights
Syed Ahmadullah was a government official. Mother Nasim Ara Khatun was highly educated and cultured. Syed Waliullah lost his mother when he was only eight years old. He passed secondary school from Kurigram High School in 1939 and higher secondary from Dhaka College in 1941. His formal degree was BA with Distinction. He started his career as a journalist in the Daily Statesman. In between, he worked in radio for a few days. Then he worked in the then Pakistan Embassy abroad. Last worked at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris. During the independence war of Bangladesh, he worked for Bangladesh from Paris.
His first story book ‘Nayanchara’ was published in 1945. Then the novel ‘Lalsal’ (1949), the play ‘Bahipir’ (1960), Suranga (1964), the novel ‘Chander Amabasya’ (1964), the story book ‘Dui Thier og Aonar Ghalo’ (1965), the play ‘Tarang Bhang’ (1965) were published one by one. 1965), the novel “Cry Nadi Kryo” (1968). He received ‘PEN Award (1955), ‘Bangla Academy Award (1961), ‘Adamji Award (1965) and Ekushey Padak’ (posthumously, 1984) for literary works. He died in Paris in October 1971.
Bahipi’s play was first published in Dhaka in 1960. Before publication, an international conference was held in Dhaka under the initiative of PEN Club in 1955, where ‘Bahipir Natak’ won the Bengali drama competition.
The story of the play ‘Bahipir’ is based on a Pir. This Pir travels from house to house of his followers in different districts throughout the year. One type of language in each area. So he speaks in the language of the book instead of learning the languages of different regions. For this he was named Bahipeer. The play is named Bahipir after the name of this central character of the play. The name also has a symbolic significance. In the Bengali Muslim society, the pir community was created from the pages of superstitions and religious books. Originally, the creation of Pir Samaj was based on Sufi interpretation of Islam. As such, they capitalized on the reformation of people from the pages of the religious interpretation Masael book and spread in the society. Playwright Syed Waliullah’s father was a magistrate. Waliullah got the opportunity to travel all over Bangladesh due to his father’s transfer job. He got the opportunity to see closely the pir system prevalent in the Bengali Muslim society at that time.
The play revolves around the story of a girl’s rebellion against the totalitarian interests of outsiders and a symbol of the new day. The central character of the play is Bahipir. He visits the houses of disciples or murids once in two years. Then the disciples served him with everything. Now a murid forced his motherless daughter Tahera to marry this old pir. They did not accept it. he escapes He escaped and took refuge in the city-bound barge of Hatim Ali Zamindar. Bahipir also went out in search of him with his companion Haqikullah. On the way, Bahipir’s boat meets with an accident and he accidentally takes shelter in Hatim Ali’s barge. Once he found out, It is in this Vajra that he has his newly wedded wife. Then he resorted to tricks to get her. On the other hand, Hashem Ali, the zamindar’s son in Bajra, took his side after knowing Tahera’s sad story. This led to conflict in Bajra. Bahipeer resorted to nefarious tactics. He even took advantage of the landlord’s helplessness. But can’t win in the end. Tahera and Hashem Ali break through all obstacles and escape. The real situation is also accepted by the defendant.
Introduction to the character of the drama: Bahipir
The central character and name character of Bahipi’s play. He is very shrewd and practical man. He managed to worship the superstitions and superstitions of the uneducated common people. He visits the houses of his murids throughout the year. Collected money from them. This time he married a murid’s daughter in his old age. The truth of the murid and the daughter is arranged together. But the daughter ran away. Then he himself went out in search of his future wife and happened to find her. Then he resorted to great cunning and intelligence. We see him at this stage in the play. We see that he is very patient and intelligent. Real wisdom is also in his taunton. To rescue his wife, he pretended to take refuge with the police. but knows It’s a lot of trouble. So don’t go that way. He first advocated religious marriage. But when Tahera counter-argued him, he backed down. He then pretended to be a humanitarian. He said this girl never got love. You will understand if you get affection from him. As this did not work, he took advantage of the landlord’s helplessness. He offered to protect the zamindar’s zamindari with money. He wants Tehera back as a condition. But all his plans fail at some point. Tahera and Hashem Ali escape. Then we see that he accepts reality. He forbade them to pursue. It shows his intelligence and practical knowledge at the same time. Want to return Tahera. But all his plans fail at some point. Tahera and Hashem Ali escape. Then we see that he accepts reality. He forbade them to pursue. It shows his intelligence and practical knowledge at the same time. Want to return Tahera. But all his plans fail at some point. Tahera and Hashem Ali escape. Then we see that he accepts reality. He forbade them to pursue. It shows his intelligence and practical knowledge at the same time.
Tehera is one of the most important characters in this drama. Arguably the most important character. Because the drama revolves around him. She is motherless. Her superstitious father and Satyata arrange her marriage with an old Pir. But she did not accept this unfair marriage. ran away The city-goer rides the barge with adventure. But once caught by the peer. Bajra did not waver from his decision not to go with the old man, even though almost everyone turned against him except Hashem Ali, the only one in Bajra. As such, Taheri is a very rigid character. But when he comes to know the landlord’s helplessness, he agrees. Shows humanity. That is, he is a rigid and humane character at the same time. Finally, she took Hashem Ali’s hand and left for the unknown in search of a new life. Women’s rights and awakening in the early 20th century. A symbol can be called a character.
Hashem Ali son of zamindar. He is a very important character in this play. He is the opposite of the central character. He very calmly faced the machinations of the outsiders and finally won. The negative character of the antagonist. He counts life and the world as personal interests. Hashem Ali on the other hand is a positive character. Human values and justice are of utmost importance to him. In this sense, Hashem Ali can be considered as the hero and Bahipir as the villain. Although Hashem Ali is the son of a zamindar, material considerations are less for him. Don’t think about zamindari. He passed BA. Now wants to install a press. He is not worried if his father’s zamindari is gone and he cannot set up a press for it. He thinks, when he studies, he will become something. He is very rational. People with modern and humanitarian feelings. Bajra realized the nature of the problem of that first unknown girl. He becomes sympathetic towards her. He saves her when she tries to kill herself. He did not leave the girl’s side when the entire Bajra people were against him. Although he is described as restless in the play, he remains steadfast in his position. In this case, mother’s warning, outsider’s intimidation, father’s pitiful face could not deter him. He wants to save Tehera. Even if married. As a zamindar’s son, Tahera is an unknown girl unknown to him. But in the end he abandons all material things and sets out for the uncertain-unknown with the girl. His action was finally approved by the defendant himself as correct. Hashem Ali is a symbol of protest against religious prejudice and social injustice. Nothing could deter him from his father’s pitiful face. He wants to save Tehera. Even if married. As a zamindar’s son, Tahera is an unknown girl unknown to him. But in the end he abandons all material things and sets out for the uncertain-unknown with the girl. His action was finally approved by the defendant himself as correct. Hashem Ali is a symbol of protest against religious prejudice and social injustice.
Hatim Ali is a decadent landlord. Due to arrears of rent, his estate was auctioned at sunset. He set out to collect money from his friends in the city to save the zamindari. He kept the news of his zamindari auction a secret from the whole family. He went to the city on the pretext of treatment, but he failed to collect the money. Finally he said the word to the outsider. Bahipir gives him tough conditions. His wife must be handed over to him in return for the loan of money. The girl also agrees. But the zamindar himself sat down. Because he started to feel like a butcher to himself. His human values are awakened. He refused to take the money. Hatim Ali’s high sense of morality is revealed in this. Hatim Ali is a brilliant character with steady, self-absorbed high human consciousness.
Haqikullah and Zamindar Ginni are two minor characters of this play. Landlord Ginny is a very simple character. He is superstitious and very religious. When an unknown girl sought shelter in Bajra, he granted her shelter. He is saddened to know the sad story of the girl. When he learned that the girl was the runaway wife of a Pir, he wanted to return her. He realized that this marriage is unfair, but Pir’s. Afraid of the curse. Again, when the son and the peer took a stand face to face, he wanted to remain on the side of the peer. But the boy could not be suppressed. In her, the image of the traditional Bengali mother has emerged. Haqiqullah Pir’s Dhamadhara is an impersonal character. He is the assistant of the outsider. In the play, he is basically following the orders of the peer.
It can be understood from the social picture reflected in the play, the period of the play is the end of the 19th century or the beginning of the 20th century. It is seen in the drama that Zamindar Hatim Ali is going to lose his Zamindari in the sunset law. The Sunset Act was enacted in 1793 and the zamindari continued to be lost until this time. At that time, the image of pir customs, superstitions and superstitions prevailing in the remote areas of Bangladesh has emerged in this play. In this play, we see that Pir Saheb is feared and respected by the rich and the poor. The common people of the village lose their wits when they meet their Pir. Goes mad to serve him. They donate from wealth to their own daughters. The play is a faithful document of the pir tradition prevalent in Bengali Muslim society. But the play ultimately shows us the way to the light. This situation signals a change. The two main characters of the play, Hashem Ali and Tahera, broke the system. superstition, Humanity triumphs over superstition. Other characters also have a logical humanistic sense. The play thus becomes a scenario of human awakening.